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A New Model for Atomic Structure

by Cuong Nguyen



A better model of atomic structure is presented, and hopefully to resolve many questions that have baffled scientists for decades.  It explains how primordial particles were created in the first place, and what had really happened before the Big Bang.  Furthermore, the model can be mathematically proved, and verified from other historical experiments conducted by our renowned scientists in the past.


The nuclear physics was primitively introduced by Thompson's experiment with the cathode rays more than a century ago. Its powerful application only began six decades ago when the first atomic bomb was designed and tested in New Mexico. Since then, nuclear engineering has resulted in hundred useful applications including nuclear energy, medical treatment and even on the key component for a life-saving, simple device likes smoke detector in houses around the world.  But, while so many research works with impressive achievements being realized by our best scientists, one may still wonder whether we truly understand the atomic structure of a simple element, such as hydrogen? 

The true answer might be a humble "No".  The best minds in the science community are still unsure how atoms were formed in the first place.  As of present time, most of our scientists believe that a nuclei of an atom includes at least several subatomic particles: Quarks, Gluon and Muon, etc., which help bonding the primary particles together, proton and neutron.  On the other side, however, there are still quite a few skeptical people including me, who's not satisfied with the current theory of atomic structure.  We believe that those subatomic particles could not be found or identified without smashing atoms in a giant accelerators, artificially. 

It is true that the Big Bang event actually produced massive collisions and extreme heat within the particles, so that protons and neutrons could be smashed and broken up into smaller fragments which still carried small positive or negative charge.  As a result, they were attracted to each other and merged back to form the original particles.  But the reunion should have not been mistaken for the naturally made, subatomic particles.

As of present time, we still do not know exactly how protons and neutrons are arranged in a nuclei, and how electrons are orbiting around its nuclei.  The best theory of quantum mechanics may explain reluctantly how electrons are circling outside of a nuclei.  After all, we have been fortunate that most nuclear applications have never required scientists to calculate or use any of the subatomic particles, except the three most basic particles: Electron, Neutron and Proton.

According to Darwin's theory of evolution, any object in this universe should be evolved gradually into a more complex form.  If Darwin is right, his theory also means that any matter, from the beginning of our universe, should be formed by a very simple way, if not the simplest one. The theory presented in this paper will confirm the theory and hopefully would resolve other remaining issues as well.

Before the Big Bang.     

The Big Bang theory was initially mentioned by Hubble in the decade of 30s, suggested later by Gamow and actually confirmed by the discovery of cosmic radiation background in 1964. There have been findings that included recent photos taken by space stations, showing similar explosions that have been occurred somewhere in the deep space beyond our milky galaxy. The nuclear physicists also agree that the Big Bang event was similar to a thermonuclear explosion created by means of nuclear fusion.  As a result, we have no doubt about the Big Bang theory because the hard evidences are very convinced.  But the debates would not stop here.  It seems to raise more questions and it goes furthermore to challenge our intellectual curiosity.  The most frequently-asked questions are: If indeed, there was a Big Bang to start the universe, then what had really happened before?  More importantly, what was the fuel to power the Big Bang? And how was it made?

The theory of atomic structure presented in this article may not be conceptually formed without understanding its common logic.  As mentioned previously, any matter that had appeared first, either Proton, Neutron or something else, had to be formed by the most simple way, if not the simplest one in the history of our universe.  So, if any existing object in our universe had been gradually evolved to a more complex form now, then, looking back its original in the first place, it had to be created by a very simple form.

There had to be a period called "Incubation Period" which could take up to dozen of billion years to prepare the fuel, long before the Big Bang event or the first cosmic explosion. No matter who made it, or how the Big Bang was begun, the first Big Bang explosion had to have something that physically called "fuel" to start with. 

It was suggested and later accepted by many scientists that the Big Bang was created by a chain explosion, similar to the nuclear fusion of the hydrogen elements.  In deed, the "Incubation Period" was to produce that kind of fuel.  The remaining critical question:  How was the Universe begun?  The answer is the following theory of the "Small Crack" (One may think of the "Big Silence", instead)



The Small Crack

From the very beginning, our universe was in a singularity state, or philosophically nothingness, i.e. all was absolutely the same. The size of the universe at that time could be speculated as small as a point on this page, or as big as our existing one.  Then appeared a very "Small Crack" (Please don't ask who did it!).  After the first "Small Crack" had been occurred, the surrounding area including the upper and lower portion, were reacted to the first crack as if they had just lost something, rushed back to retrieve its lost which was actually a little "void" created by the crack. Consequently, both upper and lower bodies were pulled away and left their main body, causing a chain reaction behind them, creating more cracks and voids.

After all, the primitive universe had just begun a process of "incubation period", when more cracks and voids were created.  For illustration, we may recall seeing a broken windshield of cars after they were involved in a massive collision.  The first act of retrieving the lost ones between the two bodies and the little voids will be later called the attractive force between positive and negative elements.  We may also assume, by coincidence, the size of a void was as small as an electron, and the two little separated bodies were as big as a proton or a neutron.

Now, let's just imagine there is a big dancing party for single people.  It would be no problem if every participant could have his or her interesting partner to dance with!  But, what would happen if there are two people who may be interested in one partner? Well, there are two best scenarios that would likely happen:  Either one has to give up, or one of them would have to share or take turn to dance after another.

That is the case exactly happened from the dawn of our universe. Again, let's think back to the moment after the first cracks had happened.  Due to their almost equal strength, there was a tie and then a little fight between the upper and lower bodies to retrieve the void. For our convenience, let's name "X" for the "Positive" (upper or lower bodies) and "Y" for the "Negative" (void). The physical characteristics of those first two elements in the universe were primarily established.  As of that time, X and Y were not really Proton and Electron yet until after the Big Bang. They were just in primal state with a tendency to become either Positive or Negative. Both X had tried to take over Y, and because of their equally attractive force, no one could clearly win the contest.  As a result, Y was being pulled back and forth between the upper and lower X.

The original speed of Y when running back and forth between two X's was as slow as anyone could image.  From the beginning, it would take years or even longer to have Y complete a full cycle of "back and forth"!  By then, the primitive atomic structure had included only a little Y which had been moving back and forth  between the two big Xs.

Figure 1:  A complete cycle of Primal Deuterium (or Hydrogen) was shown in 3 stages.

The ratio of holding Y between two Xs was very small from beginning and gradually increased to an ultimate ratio that  was allowed for a stable structure.  The ultimate ratio could never reach up to more than 66.6-33.3 ratio (The ratio is an assumption and will be verified mathematically later in this article).  It should also be noted that a nuclei would never have a pure state (100%) of a single proton or neutron, unless its atomic structure  collapses, then either proton or neutron would be completely thrown out of its nuclei.


Primal Deuterium.

Almost at the same time, another free and available void Y(2) from surrounding area was also attracted and moved toward the most positive X (say X(1)),whichever was available to most attract the second Y (figure 1). While Y(2) was moving toward X(1), Y(1) was also pulled back into the same X(1), which was also changing to less positive. At that moment, Y(2) was attracted to other X(2) and changed its course moving toward X(2).  Alternatively, Y(2) direction was changed back and forth, and finally circling around the alternating Y(1).  For illustration of the event, the whole episode may be liken to a dog chasing a ball that being thrown back and forth between two players. The phenomenon was later described as the electromagnetic force in an atom right after the Big Bang.   

After trillion by trillion of cycles or more, due to symmetrically and equally attractive force from both X(1) and X(2), Y(2) movement was steady and orbited around in the Y(1)-Y(2) plane (figure 1).  Its circular orbit was eventually in a plane perpendicular to the X1-X2 axis.  Furthermore, because more energy was being slowly built up after trillion by trillion of orbits Y(2) had made, the speed of Y(2) was increased and so did the Y(1).  The first Primal Deuterium(P-Deuterium) was finally formed, few billion years after the "Small Crack" had happened.


Primal Helium.

Few more billion years passed after the first P-Deuterium had been made, the universe was like a "bowl of soup" with primal deuterium (P-Deuterium) elements.   Because the interactive force between any two P-Deuterium and the energy accumulated, the more P-Deuterium were made, the higher speed for Y(1) and Y(2) was obtained in that "bowl of soup". Also, any two nearby P-Deuterium were being slowly repelled each other.  The intensity of the repelling force gradually increased, and consequently, creating more space so that some P-Deuterium could freely move around, turned over upside down and become "negative" P-Deuterium (i.e. 180 degree rotation of the existing P-Deuterium. It is the same P-Deuterium but having opposite signs, negative to positive, or vice versa).  And then appeared two types of negative and positive P-Deuterium. 

After negative P-Deuterium had appeared, it was attracted and merged with a positive P-Deuterium. The two combined P-Deuterium yielded a Primal Helium (P-Helium), which is the most basic element to create all other elements in the universe (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.  P-Helium was formed by Positive and Negative P-Deuterium.

 When P-Helium was formed, the two P-Electrons were orbiting in opposite direction, clockwise and counter-clockwise (Fig. 2). Later when the two orbiting P-Electrons reached near the speed of light, their orbits became larger and moved closer, and they were influenced physically to each other.  The encounter of two P-Electrons made them kicking each other and spinning in the opposite direction with its orbit, i.e. clockwise for negative spin (-) and counter-clockwise for positive spin (+).

Primal Tritium.

Our primitive universe was then looked like a cross section of a tree trunk.  At the center was full of P-Helium and P-Deuterium.  The next layer contained most of P-Deuterium mixing with less P-Neutron which were in a process of making P-Helium. The outermost layers included P-Proton, P-Electron and P-Neutron making P-Deuterium, etc. The whole manufacturing process was continued in a chain reaction spreading from the center to the outer perimeter.  The more P-Helium were created at the center, the more P-Deuterium were made.  In general, the energy for each primal element was proportionally increased with newly created ones in the primitive universe.  The speed of P-Electrons which were orbiting outside, or moving back and forth inside a nuclei, also increased, accordingly.   

When a vast pool of P-Helium being built up, the energy created by interactive forces between the P-Helium elements were also increased, and so was the speed of the captured P-Electron inside the nucleus axis.  Based on what we have learned so far, it could take few more billion years for the speed of the captured P-Electron which located inside a P-Helium nuclei to reach critical level, probably two-third the speed of Light.  At this critical speed, movement of some P-Helium could be disrupted, the inside P-Electron was lost and captured totally by either one P-Proton, turning it into a permanent P-Neutron.

Consequently, the remaining P-Proton was repelled by other nearby P-Proton and kicked out of the P-Helium element, freeing other P-Electron too (Figure 3).  The first Primal Tritium (P-Tritium)was made. Its trillion by trillion of P-Tritium came up later by the same process, and that was the last and final step to make fuel for the first Big Bang event.


Figure 3. The process of making P-Tritium from P-Helium before the first Big Bang.


The Big Bang

Finally, after dozen billions years later since the "Small Crack" had occurred, our primitive universe was like a giant layered sphere with most P-Tritium at the center mixing with outer layers of P-Helium, P-Deuterium, P-Neutron, P-Proton and P-Electron.  In fact, it had all ingredients for a fusion explosion waiting to be triggered when the time came.  The D-time possibly came on after energy had been gradually built up to the most critical level for a nuclear fusion between P-Helium and P-Tritium. 

Then a "Big Boom" and a chain cosmic explosions we may call the Big Bang event had finally happened and lasted forever.  It is now confirmed by some photos showing the cosmic explosions similar to the Big Bang events are continuously happening somewhere near the outer edge of our universe.  We really don't know how long it took from the "Small Crack" to the first "Big Bang" event.  But for a good estimate, the whole episode could have taken up at least as long as the time passed from the "Big Bang" to our present time, i.e. somewhere from 15 to 20 billion years.

After the "Big Bang" event or first cosmic explosions had occurred, the first basic elements like Carbon, Oxygen, or heavy metals were formed under extreme heat.


Figure 4. The fusion process happened during the Big Bang event.

Atomic structure of the first elements.

The "Small Crack" theory would not be substantiated or proven if it can't explain how the fundamental elements such as Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen etc. were formed or created in the first place.  In this topic, a theory of the atomic structures will be explored in depth.

Few seconds after the Big Bang, the immerse heat and collision caused more fusion between the first basic elements to create other light elements.  The most basic form for this important task was Helium, also the first by-product of fusion as shown in Figure 4.  By then, within a vast pool of Deuterium, Positive Helium and Negative Helium were combined to produce Barium Isotope (Z = 4, A = 8), Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and so on...

Now, let us review mathematically the atomic structure of a very basic element of our universe after the big bang: Hydrogen atom.  In the next exhibition, at first we establish a formula for calculating the speed of electron orbiting around OO' axis, and then calculate the speed when it reaches to maximum distance which is equal to a proton radius.  As shown below, the attractive force between two alternate Proton and Neutron and the electron orbiting outside is:  F = k . q . q . Cos q / (OE **2)

The above electric force must be equal to the centripetal force created by the orbiting Electron. ( Because the electric force is always much stronger than the gravitational force, we can ignore the gravitational force in the calculation.)

All other calculations are shown in the figures below:

Based on the theory presented, there is no hydrogen atom with only one proton and one electron. The only existing form of Hydrogen is Deuterium (also called heavy water).  As described previously, the atomic structure of Deuterium includes two similar particles of a temporary Proton and Neutron that are connected by a moving electron inside and another electron orbiting outside between the two particles (figures 3&4). 

The following figures illustrate how the first elements were formed and created after the Big Bang event:   


Rutherford's experiment

The Rutherford's famous experiment with alpha particles and very thin foils of gold can be explained as follows:

There are three cases described in the experiment as shown on the above figure 8:

1:  The alpha particles actually never penetrated through the gold foil, but protons and helium at the other side were released, instead.  When bombarding the gold atoms at the target side, electrons inside were energized and heated up to reach the speed of light.  By chain reaction, the electrons finally escaped its atoms at the other side of the gold foil.  The lost of electrons made gold atoms unstable.  As a result,  most particles or helium elements at the other side were repelled and ejected out following direction 1-1.

2:  A few electrons had reached speed of light and escaped late.  Therefore, the remaining particles were not only repelled late but also deflected (by particle 1 ) to the direction 2-2.

3:  Very few others at the target side were simply repelled and kicked back out at 3-3, because its atoms had lost electrons and became unstable after being bombarded by alpha particles.

There were two other experiments conducted by Rutherford (1919) and Chadwick(1932):

Recently, there also were a couple of interesting news coming out from the universities and research institutes.  The researches, by coincidence, illustrate the theory presented.  The first was from UCLA where the physicists claimed to have created nuclear fusion at room temperature.  A portable device was built to make two Deuterium nucleus collide with each other and create a fusion process.  The result for that fusion was to produce Helium, Energy and Neutrons (as illustrated in the figures 3&4).  The only problem for the device is that it required more energy to operate than the fusion can produce.

The second was published in the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics by Iwamura et al. at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Advanced Technologies Center.  The research reports a chemical experiment called transmutation phenomenon where Cesium (A=55; Z=133) was gradually disappeared and replaced by Praseodymium (A=59; Z=141) without any contamination or interference from other sources.  The same test were successfully repeated with other elements like Strontium (A=38; Z=88) to Molybdenum (A=42; Z=96). The results somehow confirm that there were either two Helium (A=2; Z=4) or a Beryllium isotope B+(A=4; Z=8) added easily to the first elements and changed them to totally different species.

Bonding between elements.


The important topic for this section is to explain how the elements would bond with each other to create chemical compounds.  As illustrated in the above figure 9, two different elements are bonded together by the same "attraction" force at either one of both ends.  However, the big difference is that the axis of alignment for two different elements are perpendicular to each other (i.e. the Y and Z-axis are rotated 90¡ã along X-axis for the second element).

We may wonder why the bonding of two elements could not happen on the other Y-axis or Z-axis? The answer is: Yes, it could, but that kind of bonding could have big problem for creating mass of its molecules.  Consequently, any compound created by an abnormal bonding could not become a common substance that we can easily see in vast quantity.

Another typical question: If the bonding happens as illustrated in the above figure 9, and if we have CH 4, why can't we have the substances like OH 4 or SH 4, etc.?

The answer: Because the elements O(Z =16) and S (Z = 32) have higher Z and stronger magnetic field that could influence the speed of electrons and destabilize H atoms at both ends. Otherwise, Carbon (Z = 12) may have less magnetic influence, and most of all, CH4 is always in the state of gas which is the weakest bonding of a chemical compound. 


Cuong Nguyen


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