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Từnguyên HánNôm
(haylà TiếngNôm có gốcHán)
(The Etymology of Nôm of Chinese Origin)

漢喃同源辭

Biênsoạn: dchph


Từngữ dướiđây trong kho từvựng HánNôm trên Han-Viet.com đãđược đưavào google.com.

TừnguyênNhững từ, chữ, hoặc âmtiết dướiđây cóthể do từ nầy tạothành.
(1) 3, (2) tam, (3) tám, (4) ba 三 sān, sàn (tam) [ Vh @ QT 弎 sān ~ 仨 sā (ta) ~ QT 三 sān, sàn, sā, sēn < MC sɑm, sʌm < OC *sjə:m, *sjə:ms | Pt 蘇甘, 蘇暫 | PNH Tn sã11, Hm sã11, Taiyuan : sã1, Dươngchâu sẽ11, Tc: se1, Ôc: sa11, Shuangfeng: sã11, Hm : sam11 (lit.); sã11, Trc: sã , Th: sɛ1 | Starostin : Also read sa\n, MC sa^\m (FQ 蘇暫), OC *s@:m-s. The development *-@:m > -a^m is irregular (established by OC rhymes). | Ghichú: Hai. /ta/. Trong giớinghiêncứu, mọignười đều chấpnhận mốiliênhệ mậtthiết của sốđến từ 1 đến 5 với các ngônngữ Mon-Khmer. Tuy mối quanhệ sốđếm giữa tiếng Khmer và tiếngViệt từ 1 đến 5 (tạisao chỉ tới 5? Rấtcóthể sốđếm từ 6 đến 9 hoặc 10 có mốiquanhệ với tiếngHán) đãđược phânđịnh rõràng nhưng ta vẫn cóthể tìmra một khuônmẫu tươngứng giữa hai thứ tiếng Hán và Việt: s- ~ p (b). Trong Introduction to Sinitic-Vietnamese (III) THE MON-KHMER ASSOCIATION ) tôi có viết: 'However, this analogy is a highly questionable case if we take into consideration the case of ba ‘three’ and bốn ‘four’. It seems that we cannot establish any correlation between the Chinese and Vietnamese numerals at all. Compare ba (Nôm) and tam (SV) ‘three’ 三 sān (~ 仨 sā (ta) ba) with Hainanese /ta/ and if both Chinese sān and Vietnamese ‘ba’ really are cognates, if any, it looks like ba had undergone a process of dropping -m and change s- (or t-) to b- . However, Hainanese /ta/ can be a plausible cognate to 'ba' if we can find also other words that repeat this pattern. If that is the case, it is more likely that it is a dissimilating process that had shifted the rounded ending -wm to the front and labialized to become b- (cf. Middle Chinese sam < *som, Proto-Chinese *sawm, Tibetan gsum, gsum-po ‘third’.) The idea that the transfer of rounding from the final labial to the initial is not mine alone, but also initiated by Baxter and later adopted by Bodman (1980) in his study. If this reasoning is worth considering, ba must be very archaic. Reversibly, parallel to the pattern {p ~ t } there is one that shows a correspondence with modern Mand. p- and Sino-Vietnamese s-: 娉 pìng: ‘seek a marriage’ sính, and Mand. p- (b-...) ~ Nôm s- (ch-...) :怕 pà ‘afraid’ sợ, 派 pài 'send somebody to do something'sai, (~ 差 chai) 比 bǐ ‘compare’ so, (as in bǐfāng: sosánh) 別 bié 'do not' chớ 曬 shài 'sun dry' phơi ] ~ 仨 sā (ta) ba 3, three, be three, number three, Also : thrice, repeatedly, repeating, repetitive,   {ID12095  -   7/9/2019 10:58:49 PM}


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