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Từnguyên HánNôm
(haylà TiếngNôm có gốcHán)
(The Etymology of Nôm of Chinese Origin)


Biênsoạn: dchph

Từngữ dướiđây trong kho từvựng HánNôm trên đãđược đưavào

TừnguyênNhững từ, chữ, hoặc âmtiết dướiđây cóthể do từ nầy tạothành.
(1) tử, (2) chết 死 sǐ (tử) [ Vh @ QT 死 sǐ < MC sji < OC *sijʔ | cđ MC 止開三上旨心 | PNH QĐ sei2, si2, Hẹ si3, shi1 | Shuowen: 澌也,人所離也。从歺从人。凡死之屬皆从死。𠒁,古文死如此。息姊切〖注〗𣥴、𠑾,亦古文死。|| Kangxi: 〔古文〕𠑾𣥴《廣韻》息姊切《集韻》《韻會》《正韻》想姊切,𠀤斯上聲。《白虎通》死之言澌,精氣窮也。《釋名》死者,澌也,若冰釋澌然盡也。《莊子·知北遊》人之生,氣之聚也。 又姓。自、死、獨、膊,代北四姓也。見《氏族略》。 又叶息利切,音四。《宋玉·九辯》願徼𡴘而有待兮,泊莽莽與埜艸同死。叶上至。 | Guangyun: 死 息姊 心 脂B開 上聲 紙 開口三等 止 脂B si siix/syy || Starostin: Proto-Vietmuong: *-cet, Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ce:t, Proto-Katuic: *ce:t, Proto-Bahnaric: *cɤt-, Khmer: OK phsjat Iʔ, Proto-Monic: *cǝt, Proto-Palaungic: Pr.Angku *ciat, Khasi: ʒot 'destroyed, ruined' ||

The case of 'chết' by Tsu-lin Mei

(1) 札**tsɛt’to die’

In Cheng Hsüan's commentary on the Chou-Li, the gloss 越人謂死為札“The Yüeh people call ‘to die’ 札” occurs.** Cheng Hsüan lived during the Eastern Han (127-200 A.D.) and there seem to be no grounds to doubt the authenticity of this gloss. According to Karlgren's Grammata Serica Recensa the OC reading of the character was *tsă. This is Karlgren's group II. There is good reason to believe that his reconstruction is erroneous. Tuan Yü-ts'ai assigns this character to his group twelve, which corresponds most nearly to Karlgren's group V.** Chiang Yu-kao places it in his 脂 group which also corresponds most nearly to Karlgren's group V.** How do we explain this discrepancy? There are several ways to assign a given character to an OC rhyme group. It may be assigned on the basis of its occurrence in a rhymed text, but if it does not appear as a rhyme word, then there are only two alternative methods for determining its proper membership: a few Middle Chinese (hereafter MC) rhymes all go back to a single OC category; this is the case, for example, with the MC rhyme 唐 which derives from the OC 阳 group in its entirety. For such MC rhymes, the assignment to an OC rhyme category is mechanical. Frequently, however, a given MC rhyme has more than one OC origin. This, in fact, is true of the character in question. 札 belongs to the MC 黑吉 rhyme; this rhyme derives from three different OC rhyme categories: 祭,微,and 脂 corresponding roughly to Karlgren’s II, V, and X. The only way to determine which ÓC rhyme category such words as this belong to is to examine their hsieh-sheng connections. In the Shuowen, is defined as follows: 札牒也,从木乙声. In GSR 505 a reading *•iɛt is given for; this is Karlgren’s group V. And in the Shih-ming, written by Liu His, a younger contemporary of Cheng Hsan, the sound gloss is 札,木节也(木节 *ts*,OC 脂 group).** Clearly 札 should belong to the same group as 乙; the proper reconstructions is tsɛt and not tsăt as given in GSR 280b. Tung T’ungho does not give this character in his Shang-ku yin-yün piao-kao,** but it is simple enough to place it where it belongs—viz. on page 215 in Tung’s 微 group; the proper form in Tung’s system is *tsət.

There can be no doubt that this word represents the AA word for ‘to die’: VN chêt; Muong chít, chét; Chrau chu’t, Bahnar kˠcit; Katu chet; Gua test; Hre ko’chit; Bonam kachet; Brou kuchêit; Mon ch*t. More cognate forms can be found in Pinnow, p. 259, item K324f. The Proto-Mon-Khmer form has been reconstructed by Shorto as kcət,** which is extremely close to our OC form. There is even the possibility that Proto-MK* k- is reflected in the glottal initial of the phonetic 乙.

'To die' in other east and southeast Asian languages are: Chinese 死*siər; Tib. * ‘chi-ba, šhi; Lolo-Burm *šei;** Proto-Tai *tai; ** Proto-Miao *daih. ** Here Chinese goes together wit Tibeto-Burman, and Proto-Tai goes together with Proto-Miao. None of these forms has any resemblance to *tsɛt.

{Note: Tsu-lin Mei is discusing about the 死 sǐ sound in Qin-Han period. We still have more to learn from the Proto-Chinese sound of this word than what has been discused here.

Source: ||

td. 死不瞑目 sǐbùmíngmù (chếtkhôngnhắmmắt), 死不足惜 sǐbùzúxī (chếtkhôngchúttiếc), 死路 sǐlù (chỗchết), 死去活来 sǐqùhuólái (chếtđisốnglại) ] , pass away, die, death, decease, lay down one’s life for, risk one’s life, to the death, beyond, expire, deadly, Also:, impassable, uncrossable, inflexible, rigid, cling to, closed, family surname of Chinese origin,   {ID8441  -   10/10/2017 12:21:35 AM}

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